AKS with AAD Pod Identity

Adding Pod Identity magic for granular access to Azure resources

The Azure AD Pod Identity allows you to configure access to cloud resources like DNS, Key Vault, ACR, or Blob Storage to Kubernetes pods.

In a previous article, I covered how use a managed identity, associated with the default node pool (VMSS) to allow access to an Azure DNS zone. Such a setup allowed unfettered access by any pod running in the default node pool. This is not only potentially dangerous, in infosec, this violates PoLP (Principle of least privilege). With AAD Pod Identity, access will be restricted to only the pods that need access.

This guide will show how to install and configure AAD Pod Identity so that Kubernetes addons external-dns and cert-manager can access the Azure DNS zone. These addons will automate DNS record upserts and issuing X.509 certificates so that web traffic can be secured. A small demo application will be used to show how this is all comes together.

UPDATE (2022–05-22):

  • Separated DNS Zone and AKS cluster resource groups as most professional environments will manage these in separate groups.
  • Updated and tested latest versions of ingress-nginx, cert-manager, and external-dns helm charts.

Steps in Tutorial

This tutorial guide will run through the following steps:

  1. Create Azure DNS and AKS resources
  2. Enable and Install AAD Pod Identity (managed mode)
  3. Create a managed identity for Azure DNS access
  4. Create pod identity bindings for cert-manager and external-dns
  5. Install K8S addons: cert-manager, external-dns, ingress-nginx
  6. Deploy hello-kubernetes that uses an ingress

About Pod Identity Authorization

This guide will cover using managed mode, where the operator (you) will install the necessary AzureIdentity and AzureIdentityBinding resources, which is associated to a managed identity (that you will also create) to the desired target pod.

NOTE: In managed mode, MIC (Managed Identity Controller) will not be used.

When these components are installed, AKS resource provider will assign the specified managed identity to the virtual machine scale set (VMSS) of each node pool in the AKS cluster (ref).

The NMI (node managed identity) server will find which pods need access to Azure DNS through Azure Resource Provider, which checks the pod’s identity mappings (denoted by the binding icon in the above diagram).

The NMI server will then request an access token from Azure AD based on the pod’s identity mappings. This access token is then used by the pod to access the Azure DNS service.

Requirements

For this guide, you will need an Azure subscription (see free).

For secure traffic (HTTPS) you will need to manage a public domain (or subdomain) and point this to the Azure DNS zone after it is created.

You can alternatively use a private domain with Azure DNS zone, but you will be required to manage DNS or edit the /etc/hosts on your local system, so that it points to the public IP address.

Required tools

  • Azure CLI tool (az): command line tool that interacts with Azure API
  • Kubernetes client tool (kubectl): command line tool that interacts with Kubernetes API
  • Helm (helm): command line tool for “templating and sharing Kubernetes manifests” (ref) that are bundled as Helm chart packages.
  • helm-diff plugin: allows you to see the changes made with helm or helmfile before applying the changes.
  • Helmfile (helmfile): command line tool that uses a “declarative specification for deploying Helm charts across many environments” (ref).

Optional tools

I highly recommend having a POSIX shell (sh) such as GNU Bash (bash) or Zsh (zsh). These scripts were tested on either of these shells on macOS and Ubuntu Linux.

Project Setup

The following file structure will be used:

~/azure_podid/
├── demos
│ └── hello-kubernetes
│ └── helmfile.yaml
├── env.sh
└── examples
└── cert-manager
├── helmfile.yaml
└── issuers.yaml

You can create this with the following commands:

Project environment variables

Setup these environment variables

You will need to set AZ_DNS_DOMAIN and ACME_ISSUER_EMAIL to what makes sense for your environment. If you use a private DNS domain, set ACME_ISSUER to letsencrypt-staging.

Azure components

Below are scripts that will provision Azure DNS and AKS. Installing AKS will create a resource group with six components provisioned:

Create Azure Resources: Azure DNS and AKS

You can provision Azure DNS and AKS with the following steps:

You can verify the installed components in the new Kubernetes cluster with the following command:

source env.sh
kubectl get all --all-namespaces

This should show something similar to the following:

Output of AKS in 2021–08–28

Enable and Install AAD Pod Identity

In order to use the automation for AAD Pod Identity, the preview feature must be enabled. This can be done with the following commands:

Afterward, the AKS cluster can be updated to support AAD Pod Identity.

You can verify the components are installed with:

kubectl get all --namespace kube-system --selector component=nmi
kubectl get AzurePodIdentityException --namespace kube-system

The output should be something like this:

Create a Managed Identity

Run the commands below to create a managed identity with a role assignment that permits upserts to the Azure DNS zone that was created earlier.

You can verify the role assignments with the following commands:

This should show something like the following depending on your domain name:

Kubernetes Components

In this section, three popular Kubernetes addons will be installed:

Deploy Identity Bindings

Before installing the addons, the pod identity resources AzureIdentity and AzureIdentityBinding need to be configured to allow external-dns and cert-manager to access the Azure DNS zone.

Run these commands to create required bindings for external-dns and cert-manager.

Afterward, this can be verified with the following command:

kubectl get \
--namespace kube-addons \
AzureIdentity,AzureIdentityBinding

This should output something like the following:

Kube Addons Helmfile

Copy the file below and save as examples/cert-manager/helmfile.yaml:

Cert Manager Issuers Helmfile

Copy the file below and save as examples/cert-manager/issuers.yaml:

Deploy addons and issuers

When ready, run the following commands to deploy cert-manager, external-dns, and ingress-nginx:

Afterward you can verify by running:

kubectl get all --namespace kube-addons
kubectl get --namespace kube-addons ClusterIssuer

This should show something like the following:

Demo Application: hello-kubernetes

Copy the file below and save as demos/hello-kubernetes/helmfile.yaml:

Select the Certificate Issuer

You will need to choose which issuer by setting the ACME_ISSUER environment variable. If you are using a public domain that can be verified, use the letsencrypt-prod. If you are using a private domain or want to test out the solution first, use letsencrypt-staging.

Deploy hello-kubernetes

When ready, run these commands (this assumes domain is a public domain):

source env.shexport ACME_ISSUER=letsencrypt-prod
helmfile --file demos/hello-kubernetes/helmfile.yaml apply

You can verify the results with:

kubectl get all,ing,certificate --namespace hello

This should show something like:

Verify hello-kubernetes

Point the browser the address using your domain, such as https://hello.example.com. This should land on one of the three pods:

You’ll notice the padlock icon, which shows that the website is secured, as the certificate is verified against Let’s Encrypt's publicly trusted Certificate Authority.

Let’s Encrypt’s CA (ACME) will issue the certificate, when read-write to the Azure DNS zone can be verified with cert-manager, which was achieved using AAD Pod Identity.

Additionally, the DNS record was updated with hello address (A) record, because external-dns can upsert records in the Azure DNS zone because privileges granted through AAD Pod Identity.

Cleanup

The AKS cluster and subsequent resources, including persistent volumes, can be deleted with the following command:

az aks delete \
--resource-group ${AZ_AKS_RESOURCE_GROUP} \
--name ${AZ_AKS_CLUSTER_NAME}

The Azure DNS Zone can be deleted with:

az network dns zone delete \
--resource-group ${AZ_DNS_RESOURCE_GROUP} \
--name ${AZ_DNS_DOMAIN}

Resources

These are some resources I have come across when researching this article.

Blog Source Code

The blog source code contains more robust versions of these scripts that verify env vars.

Azure AD Pod Identity

External DNS

Cert Manager

NGINX Ingress Controller

Related Articles

This articles delve further into the underlying technologies and concepts behind them.

Conclusion

The major take away for this article are how to enable, install, and use AAD Pod Identity with AKS.

There are some bonus lessons that are used to demonstrate this feature:

This was a more challenging article, as documentation available publicly was a bit sparse or limited, and there were plenty of mistakes. This only encouraged me further, as I figured once I can gain competency in this area, I could help improve documentation for some popular open source.

I hope this material is useful, and thank you for following.

Linux NinjaPants Automation Engineering Mutant — exploring DevOps, o11y, k8s, progressive deployment (ci/cd), cloud native infra, infra as code

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Joaquín Menchaca (智裕)

Joaquín Menchaca (智裕)

Linux NinjaPants Automation Engineering Mutant — exploring DevOps, o11y, k8s, progressive deployment (ci/cd), cloud native infra, infra as code

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